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Welcome to the Trafficking & Criminal Exploitation: Law, Research and Practice Area.  These pages are for professionals looking for up-to-date research, opportunities to discuss and share knowledge and experience with colleagues from across different professions and disciplines, and keep abreast of the rapid developments and debates in the field.   


Section 45 of the The Modern Slavery Act (2015) provides a statutory defence for those that have had to commit crimes as a result of being trafficked and exploited by criminals. 
The Act is still relatively new legislation that is being interpreted, tested, and applied to the extremely complex problem of trafficking of human beings for the purposes of slavery, servitude, and forced and compulsory labour. 
Despite the laudable aims of the s45 Defence, it's implementation has not been without problems. However, in the past couple of years there have been a series of important authorities with significant implications for trials concerning possible criminal exploitation . 

Part 5 of the Nationality and Borders Act 2022 As part of the UK government's reforms to the UK asylum system and strengthening of border controls, the Controversial Nationality and Borders Act received Royal Assent In April 2022. It has been widely criticised by many in the Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking field for its provisions relating to victims of trafficking and modern slavery in Part 5 of the Act, particulalry s.57-s.68. 

University of Nottingham Rights Lab issued a policy briefing on the impact of the new legislation on potential victims of modern slavery. 
Click below for part 1 of the Criminology Corner s45 Podcast: 

Visit the Criminal Exploitation Law discussion and comment board:  


Criminal Exploitation (CCE) means coercive control of a child or vulnerable adult in order for them to commit crimes on the behalf of another.  
Often, a victim of criminal exploitation is not recognised as such when they come to the attention of criminal justice and child safeguarding authorities. 
These pages will challenge the assumptions which underpin the tactical and strategic responses of professionals, criminal justice, and safeguarding organisations, and provide access to new and emerging research, data, and analysis concerning trafficking and criminal exploitation in the UK and throughout the world. 
Click below for a short recording of Dr Craig Barlow's presentation of his "Circles of Analysis" Model of CCE: 

Visit the Criminal Exploitation Research discussion and comment board:  


This area will produce news and examples of practice development in combating criminal exploitation and is a place for lawyers, police officers, social workers, health professionals, educators, and others concerned with the issue, to meet and exchange knowledge and experience. 
I hope that this will lead to the growth of a respectful, mutually supportive, multi-disciplinary community of professionals and academics. 
Click below for the video explaining how Organised Crime Groups (OCGs) identify, groom and recruit victims for criminal exploitation: 

Visit the Criminal Exploitation Practice discussion and comment board:  

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